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如何展开雅思写作大作文的主体段?

        雅思写作是许多雅思考生最为头疼的,同时也是得分最不理想的一个部分。在写作实战中,考生遇到的问题往往有以下几种:一、时间不充足。很多考生在写作中手忙脚乱,不知从何处下手,思绪无法集中,因而时间不够用,导致写作任务无法完成,由此导致失分严重。二、字数不够,尤其是大作文。很多考生的写作过程可谓是非常痛苦,因为他们就是在想方设法硬凑字数,可想过程是过么辛苦加痛苦。即使字数够了,在这种情况下挤牙膏似的挤出来的文章质量能又能有多高呢。考生根本不会考虑到文章的结构和逻辑,更不会有一气呵成,行云流水般的美感了。三、在写作过程中思绪万千,洋洋洒洒写了许多,但是却不能得高分,因为考生在写的过程中是想到什么就写什么,更有甚者是一句话可能会来来回回重复几次。他们根本不知道雅思写作的特点,不知道如何安排文章的结构,如何提出论点,如何论证,如何展开段落,因而整片文章就像一盘散沙,会存在论点不明确、论证论据缺乏力度、结构逻辑混乱等问题。

雅思大作文要求在40分钟内完成250字的写作,对于大部分中国考生来说,还是比较困难的,因为不管是在中学还是在大学,他们遇到的英文写作一般都是120字,大学英语六级也只有150字。因此,考生们觉得很难高质量地完成250字的英文写作也是情理之中。笔者认为,造成这个问题的主要原因是考生们不知如何展开段落,如何提出观点,然后进行论证。雅思大作文一般分为开头段、主体段和结论段。其中,开头段和结论段所占字数较少,而且写起来相对容易。而主体段字数较多,写起来要复杂的多。可以说,主体段的写作直接关系着能否满足字数要求,而且也最能体现文章的逻辑性。

主体段落一般由主题句和扩展句构成。主题句一般放在第一句,是段落核心,用来概括全段内容。主题句分为笼统主题句和具体主题句。笼统主体句的作用是引出下文,点明方向,具体主题句则概况下面内容的核心主题。仅有主题观点是不够的,还要对其进行论证,也就是围绕主题进行论证,对其进行说明、叙述、举例及论述。

一、举实例论证。

有些考生在开头提出观点之后,就不知道该如何继续下去。这种情况下,考生可以举实例论证,举例是我们解释论证一个观点最好的方式,也是最有说服力的。

Although sticking to one’s goal is key to success, sometimes one should be ready to give up. Napoleon’s story is a case in point. After Napoleon succeeded in seizing the crown of France, he should have been satisfied with his achievement. But he did not. He went on to conquer the whole Europe. Then after he succeeded in ruling almost the whole Europe, he should have given up this ambition to expanding his empire. But he did not. He went on to invade Russia and there he suffered a total defeat. Later he was sent into exile and died in a lonely island.

本段引用了拿破仑的事迹来加以论证。拿破仑是家喻户晓的人物,而且最后决定拿破仑及其帝国命运的滑铁卢战役也是大家都知晓的。通过这个例子来说明在适当的时候学会放弃是很有说服力的。在举例时,最好选择一些大家都知晓的,这样才能更有说服力。当然考生也可以用自己的亲身经历来加以论证。

The second reason for my propensity for outdoor activities is that they can build my mind greatly. In sports, one must learn to struggle for the victory, learn to fight with no matter what is left in his body. And one must learn to stick to one’s own confidence and hope, no matter how little the hope may be. And one must learn to accept failure, learn to start again after failure. Long-running and mountain climbing contribute much to this kind of spirits. I will never forget the feeling when I raced to the final line first in a 300-meter running. I could hardly breathe in the last 100 meters. My lungs ached and my legs weighed tons, but there was still one runner in front of me. I gave all my strength to move one foot ahead of the other. When I surpassed him, he gave a cry of surprise, I won at last and I learned much from the race.

文章在提出主题句后,先是加以论述,然后用长跑和爬山作为例子。最后又用自己的亲身经历和感受来论证室外活动可以增强一个人的毅力。

二、用一些研究、调查、发现、科学家及权威人士的观点或组织机构的研究结果加以论证,并引用数据作为支撑。此论证方法的好处就是比较权威客观,更有说服力。

If people move to live in different places, they will have more opportunity for improving their lives. According to a survey conducted by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 55% of urban Chinese had changed their living place at least once in their lifetime by 2000, an increase of 30 percent as compared with that of 2 decades ago. Chinese sociologists agree that this trend is most likely to continue with the development society. Statistics indicate that people who moved at least once in their lifetime enjoy a much higher living standard than those who never moved.

本段先是引用中科院的调查数据加以论证,然后用某些专家和数据继续加以论证。有一点值得注意,很多考生并不知道真实的数据,考试中往往是自己的发明创造。所以没有把握的情况下,尽量不要去写那些众所周知的人或者机构,可以模糊地用某个机构或某个学者,数据上也千万不要太夸张,只要能达到有力够论证自己的观点即可。

三、通过比较和对比方式来论证,这样两个事物、行为或者观点的利弊就非常明显。

Those who believe in the measure say that students benefit a lot from traveling or working for a year before their formal university education. First, they can more broadly acquainted themselves with the society, deepen their understanding of the outside world, and thus better coordinate their objectives of learning with the needs of the society. In contrast, by immediate entrance to university they can not steer the direction of their study well and may display a poor combination of the theory with practice. Second, study at high school is really exhausting, especially when to win college admission. So it is necessary to grant these children a relatively long period of relaxation or buffer, say, traveling or working for a year, to loosen the chords of their brain, so that when they go back to school later again, they can become completely refreshed and rejuvenated.

这篇文章是关于上大学前是否应该用一年的时间来旅游或者工作进行论证。此段的主题是学生在进入大学学习之前花一年时间进行旅游或工作的话,会让他们受益匪浅。对比点是:进入大学之前一年进行旅游或工作有利于让学生广泛了解社会,加深他们对外界的理解,因此能让他们更好地协调好学习目标和社会的需要。相对比之下,直接进入大学学习的话,他们不能够把握学习的方向,而且有可能会产生理论和实践相脱节。通过此番对比,旅游或工作一年对于即将步入大学的学生们的好处是显而易见,段落的主题句得到有力的论证。

四、通过假设进行正反论述。

Then, since the transportation system is the lifeline of a country’s economic activities, its paralysis would lead to the disintegration of the economy, either industry of farming or daylife. Suppose all the means of transportation were halted for lack of oil, factories with insufficient raw materials would have to close, workers would be out of work, and ripe farm crops would have to stay in the fields at the mercy of rain and storms. People would try to store food and the price of all commodities would go up. If we take those power stations run by oil into account, situations would become even worse. In this sense, oil decides the fate of the whole economy and that of the government.

通过假设得出了一系列的可怕的后果,最后再得出结论,这样的结论是发人深省,当然也是最能引起人们广泛重视的。

五、换种说法,换而言之。

The computer technology has no doubt at all replaced most of function, that is, we can read books from the academic database; newspapers and publishes from almost everywhere, this means that we do not need many hard copies and environment friendly for the earth. However I am not so much convinced that public libraries can replace other functions that we need other than providing information or books.

换而言之就是换种方式去解释,使解释更加具体直观话,因而更能被理解并接受。

以上就是我对展开雅思大作文主体段的一些个人见解,希望对大家有所帮助!