无忧雅思网_雅思预测_雅思机经_雅思考试_雅思资料下载_2016年雅思考试时间

探析雅思写作中衔接手段的评分标准

在官方公布的写作评分描述中有一项Coherence and Cohesion 。这一项是涉及要点最多,却最为广大教学工作者和学生所忽视的一项。该项目涉及三大要点:文章信息点安排(information and ideas organization)、衔接手段(cohesive device)和分段(paragraphing).其中分段在大作文的5分至7分的评分描述中被重点强调。

本文将重点关注该项目中所提到的Cohesive Device:(衔接手段)。

Coherence and Cohesion 的7分第二条原文:

Uses a range of cohesive devices appropriately although there may be some uner-/over-use

6分第二条原文为:

Uses cohesive devices effectively, but cohesion within and/or between sentences may be faulty or mechanical;

6分第三条提到:

May not always use referencing clearly or appropriately

与之对应的5分第二条为:

Makes inadequate, inaccurate or over-use of cohesive devices

5 分第三条为:

May be repetitive because of lack of referencing and substitution

由以上所涉及到的原文可以看出,referencing(指代关系)和substitution(替代)都是cohesive device(衔接手段)的表现,而且是确定分值的重要参考标准。

那么这里反复提到的Cohesive Device(衔接手段)究竟是什么呢?

Cohesive Device:(衔接手段)定义:

能使信息的逻辑关系更清晰的各种英语字符。

逻辑关系主要涉及:并列或递进关系、让步或转折关系、因果关系和举列。

具体来看,可分成以下三类:

Lexical aspect:(词汇方面)

Linking word(连词):

并列或递进关系:and; also; too; or; Besides; furthermore; moreover; likewise; meanwhile等

让步或转折关系:but; however; whereas; nonetheless; nevertheless; although; though; otherwise; yet; rather; despite; rather等

因果关系:because; so; since; for; so; thus; therefore; thereby;

举例:like

Linking phrase(短语):

并列或递进关系:not only…but also; as well as; either…or; in addition; apart from that; beyond that

让步或转折关系: even though; in spite of; on the other hand; on the contrary; in contrast; instead of, It is true that…;

因果关系: now that; in that; due to; owing to; as a result (of); in that case

举例:for example; for instance; in particular; such as; just as

Adverb (副词):

并列或递进关系:additionally; similarly; alternatively;

让步或转折关系: surprisingly; admittedly

因果关系: consequently; eventually;

举例:especially;

Reference(代词):

They; them; he; him; she; her; it; these; those; this ;that等

(句法)Syntax:

Punctuation (标点符号):

并列或递进关系:分号

同位、举例:冒号;破折号;括号

Clause (各种从句):主句的信息为重点信息;从句信息为次要信息

Unnoticeable cohesive device(高级连接手段)

Rhetorical purpose: (修辞)

排比:并列关系

Substitution/paraphrasing(同义转换):用词性转换、近义词、下义词、等有关联的信息来重复重点信息。这是获得7分以上高分的重要标志。

很多学生总是抱怨自己词汇量小,思路打不开。或是背了一大堆的词汇,真到考试就用不上了。或是写了一堆语言,但中心论点不明确。

其实,如果一个段落的每一句话,都能出现要点信息,文章就会很容易读懂,并给人浑然一体的感觉。为了让读者更好的理解这一高级的连接手段,我们来做一个小小的练习。

中心话题为Disaster,要求说出的短语,单词必须要能让人联想到该主题。

我们可以有以下几种思路:

词性转换: disastrous; disastrously

近义词:catastrophe; calamity; suffering; misfortune, misery

下义词:

disaster→

natural disaster →

flood; tsunami; earthquake→

quake-scattered area→

victims→the injured; the missing; the death toll; the wounded soldiers; the affected; suffering; loss; the trapped; the buried, the homeless→orphan; the old without any family members;

survivor; survival

rescuer; aid; help; rescue; relief operation; relief donation; supplies; relief cash and material; red cross; emergency aid; first aid kit; emergency shelter, food , medical care, emergency response team; evacuate

condolence; mourn

通过这种思维方式,我们还可以想出很多能体现“灾难“的语言。尤其是下义词的有效使用,即可掩盖词汇量不大的缺陷,还可以让文章生动,说理性强。

官方给出的高分文章也可以体现这一特点。

Children of poor parents are prematurely exposed to the problems of adult life eg. learning to survive on a low family income and sacrificing luxuries for essential items. These children begin to see the ‘realities’ of life in their home or social environment. Their parents own struggles serve as an example to them.(53words)

引自IELTS Scores Explained DVD (http://www.ielts.org/general_pages/media_centre/ielts_scores_explained_dvd.aspx)

Cohesive device:

通过同意转换和代词的使用,该段每句话主语紧扣题目主题信息:children from poor families,

Children of poor parents;These children;Their parents

句子之间没用使用明显的连词或连接短语,但通过 problems of adult life; the ‘realities’ of life; parents own struggles’凸显该段分论点“生活艰难“另外,首句中的‘prematurely’由第二句的 ‘begin to’第三句的 ‘serve an example’对应,使得该段的信息环环相扣,读起来浑然一体。该段使用最突出的”cohesive device”是信息对应。即用下义词,反义词等与主题句的分论点相关的各种具体形像化和相关性的词来展开论证。这是paraphrasing的最高表现。也是确保“cohesion”的最佳方案。

以上是笔者对“cohesive device(衔接手段)”的一些新的认识,并在课堂教学中进行了初步的尝试。尤其是同义转换中通过下义词来强调文章中心论点的思维方式,让不少学生不再畏惧无话可写的困境。