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雅思写作:如何从考官范文中提取素材


很多考生在面对雅思大作文时,对于素材和论据的选取很是苦恼,因此往往会看一些文章或者是材料有利于积累观点素材。BBC,CNN甚至是economist当然都是优质的选择,但是在紧张的雅思备考中,在听说读写四面夹击的屠鸭战斗中,大多数考生是不可能有太多时间去通过大量阅读这些高词汇量,大篇幅的文章的来完成观点和论据的积累的;甚至在阅读完之后如何提炼信息,筛选信息,然后转化为可以为雅思写作所用的观点与论据又是一项不小的工程。

而且,对于大多数写作徘徊在5-6分考生来说,需要提高的并不是所谓的新颖丰富的论据和观点(因为评分准则中并没有对论据和观点的新颖性有任何的要求),而是如何在准确审题之后把合适的论据通过为观点服务、并且使英语为母语的考官能够理解的方式恰当的表达成文字。下面新东方在线谢爽老师会通过剑桥真题7Test3的考官范文中的部分细节为大家呈现,如何通过考官范文提炼观点论据:

As most people spend a major part of their adult life at work, job satisfaction is an important element of individualwellbeing. What factors contribute to job satisfaction? How realistic is the expectation of job satisfaction for all workers?

首先,题目中就有一些很有用的信息可以供大家来积累观点和论据了:

1. job satisfaction/well-being---只要是涉及到“工作类别的话题,题目中的内容只要是“有利于提高员工工作满意度的”或者是“增强幸福感的”,那么大家就可以选择同意的角度和观点来写,呈现出来的句式可以是“...(题目中的内容) play an important role in enhance job satisfaction/the sense of well-being among employees”.而且对于“well-being”而言,是可以用于更广泛的题目的,如果对于”政府类”话题, 那么题目中政府的做法提高的就是the citizens'/public well-being.

2. realistic---这个词给大家一个很万能的思路,当大家发现题目中的内容所涉及的某一种措施是很难得以实施的时候,观点就可以表达为...is unrealistic或者It is unrealistic for....to do......,eg. It is unrealistic for the government to pay tuition fees for every university student.

文章开头段:

Nowadays many adults have full-time jobs and the proportion of their lives spent doing such jobs is very high. So feelings about one's job must reflect how an individual feels about his or her life as a whole, and because of this, job satisfaction is indeed very important for the wellbeing of that person.

3. the proportion of their lives spent doing such jobs is very high--这个表达是可以引申为多用论点或者论据的,因此提炼出的基本结构为the proportion of... is very high/considerable +so....比如,关于“国际援助”的话题, 这个表达就可以转化为一个分论点The proportion of the natural or human resources contribution made by developing countries to accumulated wealth in rich countries is rather considerable so it is the time for the rich countries to make some recompense to them.

文章主体段第一段:

Employees get job satisfaction in a number of ways. Firstly, a person needs to feel that they are doing valued and valuable work, sopositive feedback from superiors is very important in this respect.

4. positive feedback--作为论据可以概括为“positive/negative feedback”可以根据自己想要写的内容来进行选择,比如在关于“学校教育和家庭教育”的话题中考生可以在论述学校教育的作用时用到此个表达:Both positive and negative feedback from teachers or peers in the school can make children become more aware of how their own behavior would influence others and during working or living with the classmates, they will gradually get a clear perspective of what they are expected to behave.

其实这句话中的两处表达也都是提炼自另外一篇考官范文的。