无忧雅思网_雅思预测_雅思机经_雅思考试_雅思资料下载_雅思名师_2018年雅思考试时间

同义置换典型题型填空题的读与解


  雅思阅读中的填空题(SUMMARY)一向被考生们认为是“老大难”题型,因为答案唯一既定,又不能胡乱猜测。针对这一棘手题型,本文将就其读题和解题的技巧进行分析。

  一、 填空题的读题与解题

  ⑴填空题主要分为两类:一种是题目集中爆发在文中一到二个段落,另一种是题目贯穿在文中多个段落,前者下文称为“无备选项”,后者下文称为“有备选项”。

  ①“无备选项”的填空题特征:题干内容分布在原文1-2段中,因此要求考生准确定位题干在原文中的出处,然后主意要填写原文原词即可。

  ②“有备选项”的填空题特征:题干内容分布在原文多个段落中,比较零散,找题难度较大;要求考生找出原文原词后,从备选项表格中找出跟原文原词同义置换的选项,解题难度较大。

  ⑵读题“四步走”。

  ①第一步:精读填空题题干的首段首句。

  无论有备选项还是无备选项,首句一般不设空,因此通过划找首句的关键词,能够帮助考生会原文准确定位出题方位,避免时间的浪费。通常,可以作为关键词回原文定位的包括:人名、地名、机构、时间、年代、数字、专有名词。

  ②第二步:处理第一个空格

  如果首句模糊或首句设有空格,就要按照以下2步来处理第一个空格:第一,根据空格前后内容初步判断空格词性。一般填空题的题干词性都是名词、动词、形容词和副词,以前三者为主。第二,划找“空前空后词”,这里所谓的“空前空后词”不是实际意义上的空前空后词,而是那些能够提示空格内容的词组和结构。

  ③第三步:继续处理其余空格

  填空题的出题顺序也是按照原文行文顺序来的,考生按照处理第一个空格的方式继续处理其余空格即可。即便有逆向出题或是乱序,也是少数,而且也只会是两个近似空格的乱序。

  ④第四步:密切注意同义置换

  填空题百分百考察同义置换——包括题干关键词的同义置换(无备选项)和空格内容的同义置换(有备选项)。同义置换有以下六大种:原文原词;词性变化(necessary VS necessity);时态变化(主动VS被动);同义词(tight VS restricted;evolve VS develop);图表(原文如有图表,则有一题答案来自图表);归纳总结。

  二、以下是真题解析版

  Paper Recycling

  Paper is different from other waste produce because it comes from a sustainable resource: trees. Unlike the minerals and oil used to make plastics and metals, trees are replaceable. Paper is also biodegradable, so it does not pose as much threat to the environment when it is discarded. While 45 out of every 100 tonnes of wood fibre used to make paper in Australia comes from waste paper, the rest comes directly from virgin fibre from forests and plantations. By world standards, this is a good performance since the world-wide average is 33% waste paper. Governments have encouraged waste paper collection and sorting schemes and at the same time, the paper industry has responded by developing new recycling technologies that have paved the way for even greater utilization of used fibre. As a result, industry’s use of recycled fibres is expected to increase at twice the rate of virgin fibre over the coming years.

  Already, waste paper constitutes 70% of paper used for packaging and advances in the technology required to remove ink from the paper have allowed a higher recycled content in newsprint and writing paper. To achieve the benefits of recycling, the community must also contribute. We need to accept a change in the quality of paper products; for example stationery may be less white and of a rougher texture. There also needs to be support from the community for waste paper collection programs. Not only do we need to make the paper available to collectors but it also needs to be separated into different types and sorted from contaminants such as staples, paperclips, string and other miscellaneous items.

  Question 1-7

  Complete the summary blow of the reading passage. Choose ONE OR TWO WORDS from the reading passage for each answer.

  From the point of view of recycling, paper has two advantages over minerals and oil in that firstly it comes from a resource which is (1) and secondly it is less threatening to our environment when we throw it away because it is (2) . Although Australia’s record in the re-use of waste paper is good, it is still necessary to use a combination of recycled fibre and (3) to make new paper. The paper industry has contributed positively and people have also been encouraged by (4) to collect their waste on a regular basis. One major difficulty is the removal of ink from used paper but (5) are being made in this area. However, we need to learn to accept paper which is generally of a lower (6) than before and to sort our waste paper by removing (7) before discarding it for collection.

  ①先处理第一空From the point of view of recycling, paper has two advantages over minerals and oil in that firstly it comes from a resource which is (1) ,考生应发现空前词is提示第一空词性为单数名词或形容词。

  ②然后划找空前词,考生应当对paper has two advantages中的two敏感,因为后文很快出现firstly提示第一空是包含在“第一大优势”中的,而第一空的空前词还有a resource,说明第一空要填的词一定是修饰resource的。

  ③回原文定位resource出现在Paper is different from other waste produce because it comes from a sustainable resource: trees.一句中,而resource之前正有sustainable一词修饰,显然是形容词,跟我们之前判断第一空词性是吻合的。

  ④填空题不用担心原文原词读不懂,考生完全可以在不知道sustainable一词意思情况下判断出这就是要填入第一空的答案。

  ⑤填空题注意事项:

  注意审题——题目会对每个空格的字数有所限制,如果考生发现自己寻找的答案字数多余题目限定字数,这就是在给你发出警讯:你的答案找错了。

  注意判断空格词性——如果空前词是诸如a或an,就说明空格是单数名词;如果空前词是is或are,就说明空格是名词或形容词;如果空后词有and或or,一定要以and或or之后出现的内容作为定位词,因为在原文中and或or前后的内容一定是并列出现的。

  注意“无备选项”填空题多数是填写原文原词——考生要对原文的名词复数、现在分词、过去分词看清楚,不要漏填错填。

  以上是填空题的读题和解题思路,填空题是考察“同义置换”的典型题型,也是考查考生们对原文细节寻找和把握的能力。考生们一定要在复习备考过程中有针对性地积累大量同义置换高频词,还要带着此类题型的“战略战术”去研究至少两套阅读真题,真正做到技巧和做题相结合的“练兵”,才能找出自己的薄弱点,各个击破。